Challenges posed by invasive species in India: A comprehensive approach integrating laws and Policies

New Delhi: There remains an imperative need for more encompassing legal framework exclusively dedicated to invasive species management

BY | Friday, 6 October, 2023
Lantana Camara, one of the world’s most invasive species (PC: Samratmaina2019)

Chandra Prakash Goyal is Director General of Forests & Special Secretary, Ministry of Environment, Forests & Climate Change, Government of India

India boasts diverse ecosystems, teeming with unique and invaluable flora and fauna. Yet, this rich biodiversity confronts an escalating menace in the form of invasive species, spanning both terrestrial and aquatic environments. These intruders, frequently introduced unintentionally via trade or human activities, wage resource competition against indigenous species, disrupt delicate ecological equilibriums, and present substantial economic and environmental threats.

While the Indian government has proactively initiated measures to tackle invasive species, numerous hurdles still impede their effective management. These hurdles encompass the absence of an all-encompassing legislative framework, insufficient coordination and public awareness, and a dearth of comprehensive research and risk assessments.

Montanoa, a non-native plant, in the Anamalai hills (PC: T. R. Shankar Raman)

A holistic approach to invasive species management stands as the need of the hour to surmount these challenges and shield India’s natural legacy. This approach must encompass the following pivotal facets:

Legislation and Policy: A comprehensive legal structure is imperative to provide a lucid and unified strategy for invasive species management. This framework should encompass every facet of the issue, ranging from prevention and control to restoration and public awareness.

Prevention: Augmenting early detection and swift response (EDRR) mechanisms is crucial to avert the establishment and propagation of invasive species. Stringent quarantine measures and inspection protocols at ports and borders are indispensable to forestall the ingress of novel invaders.

Control: Once invasive species gain a foothold, efficacious control measures are imperative to curtail their populations and mitigate their impacts. These measures may encompass physical eradication, chemical treatments, or biological control methods.

Restoration: Following the successful control of invasive species, concerted efforts must be exerted to reinstate the affected ecosystems. This may involve the reestablishment of indigenous flora, reintroduction of native species, and enhancements in habitat quality.

Public Awareness and Education: Communities must be sensitized to the perils posed by invasive species and the significance of preventive and control measures. Achieving this requires public awareness campaigns, educational initiatives in schools, and other outreach programs.

International Cooperation: Recognizing the transboundary nature of invasive species, international collaboration holds paramount importance. India actively participates in global collaborations and agreements, facilitating the exchange of knowledge and best practices and the development of regional and global solutions.

Ageratum conyzoides

Examples of Laws and Policies in India for Invasive Species Management:

Biological Diversity Act, 2002

Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

Environment Protection Act, 1986

Destructive Insects and Pests Act, 1914 (and amendments)

Plant Quarantine (Regulation of Import into India) Order, 2003

Livestock Importation Act, 1898 (and the Livestock Importation (Amendment) Ordinance, 2001)

National Policy on Mariculture

These laws and regulations encompass diverse aspects of invasive species control and management, including prevention of introduction and spread, control of established invasive species, ecosystem restoration, and public awareness campaigns. Nevertheless, there remains an imperative need for a more encompassing legal framework exclusively dedicated to invasive species management. Such a framework would offer a coherent and unified strategy addressing all facets of the issue, from prevention and control to restoration and public education.

By embracing a holistic approach that encompasses terrestrial and aquatic invasive species and acknowledges the human dimension of the problem, while fortifying its legal and policy framework, India can safeguard its natural heritage. In doing so, it can effectively mitigate the ecological and economic perils entailed by invasive species.

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